A separate project has been
carried out to develop normalisation factors for the ReCiPe impact
assessment method. The results have been published as an article
in Science of the Total Environment (see reference below).
September 2010, some of the normalisation factors have been revised,
resulting in ‘LCA ReCiPe midpoint normalisation 2000, version 1.1’. In
this document, the following revisions have been implemented:
note has been added to the values of the ammonia emission totals to
air, to indicate more clearly that these emission totals exclude
emissions from animal manure and fertiliser, and to give an indication
of the values of these additional (indirect) ammonia emissions.
error in the emission value of benzene to air has been corrected. This
had a limited influence on the normalisation factors for ozone formation respiratory effects and human toxicity, and a negligible influence on normalisation factors for other toxicity-related impact categories.
error in the emission value of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds to
fresh water has been corrected. This has a large influence on the
normalisation factors for human toxicity, and a negligible influence for
other toxicity-related impact categories.
- The emission of
chlorine to fresh water has been removed. This choice has been made
because the emission value was on the one hand marked by a high grade of
uncertainty, while on the other hand, it turned out to have a decisive
influence on the normalisation factors for freshwater ecotoxicity, and a
(very) large influence on the normalisation factors for marine
ecotoxicity and human toxicity. Large changes have thus occurred in
these normalisation factors, due to the removal of chlorine. In future
normalisation studies, the collection of reliable emission factors for
chlorine and chlorine compounds to the freshwater compartment needs
The revised factors are included in an Excel file, which can be downloaded by clicking here.
With every update of the ReCiPe method, the normalisation factors are recalculated using the Europe and World reference inventories in SimaPro
Sleeswijk, A (1,2), Van Oers, LFCM (3), Guinée, JB (3), Struijs, J (4),
Huijbregts, MAJ (2). Normalisation in product life cycle assessment: An
LCA of the global and European economic systems in the year 2000.
Science of the Total Environment, 2008, 390 (1): 227-240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.09.040
- GLOBRIGHT, Reitzstraat 7, 2332 XV Leiden, The Netherlands
- Radboud University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands
- Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
Institute for Public Health and the Environment – Laboratory for
Ecological Risk Assessment (RIVM-LER), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven,