The reference for the full ReCiPe report is:

Goedkoop M.J., Heijungs R, Huijbregts M., De Schryver A.;Struijs J., Van Zelm R, ReCiPe 2008, A life cycle impact assessment method which comprises harmonised category indicators at the midpoint and the endpoint level; First edition Report I: Characterisation; 6 January 2009,


The publications below are based on the work done in ReCiPe. Please note that some publications contain new insights and are resulting in characterisation factors that are different the 2008 report on this site. There is no decision yet, when and if these new insights are integrated in a new release of ReCiPe.

Van de Meent D, Huijbregts MAJ, 2005. Evaluating ecotoxicological effect factors based on the Potentially Affected Fraction of species. Environmental Toxicolology and Chemistry 24 (6): 1573-1578.[1]

Huijbregts , Rombouts LJA, Ragas AMJ, Van de Meent D. 2005. Human-toxicological effect and damage factors of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic chemicals for life cycle impact assessment. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 1 (3): 181-244.

Huijbregts , Struijs J, Goedkoop M, Heijungs R, Hendriks AJ, Van de Meent D. 2005. Human population intake fractions and environmental fate factors of toxic pollutants in Life Cycle Impact Assessment. Chemosphere 61 (10): 1495-1504.

Van Zelm R, Huijbregts MAJ, Van Jaarsveld HA, Reinds GJ, De Zwart D, Struijs J, Van de Meent D. 2007. Time horizon dependent characterization factors for acidification in life-cycle assessment based on forest plant species occurrence in Europe. Environmental Science and Technology 41 (3): 922-927.

Van Zelm R, Huijbregts MAJ, Harbers JV, Wintersen A, Struijs J, Posthuma L, Van de Meent D. 2007. Uncertainty in msPAF-based ecotoxicological effect factors for freshwater effect factors for Freshwater Ecosystems in life cycle impact assessment. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 3 (2): 203-210.

Van Zelm R, Huijbregts , Den Hollander HA, Van Jaarsveld HA, Sauter FJ, Struijs J, Van Wijnen HJ, Van de Meent D. 2008. European characterization factors for respiratory health damage due to PM10 and ozone in life cycle impact assessment. Atmospheric Environment 42 (3): 441-453.

Wegener Sleeswijk A, Van Oers LFCM, Guinée JB, Struijs J, Huijbregts MAJ. 2008. Normalisation in product life cycle assessment: An LCA of the global and European economic systems in the year 2000. Science of the Total Environment 390 (1): 227-240.

Van Zelm R, Huijbregts MAJ, Posthuma L, Wintersen A, Van de Meent D. 2009. Pesticide ecotoxicological effect factors and their uncertainties for freshwater ecosystems. Int J Life Cycle Assess 14.43.

De Schryver AM, Brakkee KW, Goedkoop MJ, Huijbregts MAJ. 2009. Characterization Factors for Global Warming in Life Cycle Assessment Based on Damages to Humans and Ecosystems. Environ. Sci. Technol.